Wednesday, June 15, 2011

მამლუქი რუსტამი (სოსო ძნელაძე)



mamluqi – arabulad tyve monebisagan Semdgar sulTnis pirad gvardias erqa.
araerTma qarTvelma mamluqma gamoiCina Tavi vajkacobiTa da TavdadebiT, erT-erTi cnobili qarTveli mamluqia, rustami. saqarTveloSi, kerZod TbilisSi dabadebuli da tyved gayiduli kairoSi.
1799wels napoleon bonaparts erT-erTma arabma Seixma ulamazesi cxeni aCuqa.es cxeni  rustamma gadasca. am dRidan napoleons rustami aRar moscilebia.
gverdidan ar iSorebda napoleoni rustams,Zalian endoboda da pirad mcveladac ki daiyena. am ndobas isic adasturebs, rom bonaparts misi Sinagan saqmeTa ministris postze undoda daniSnva.
rustami Tan axlda napoleons pirveli gadasaxlebisas kunZul elbaze. meore gadasaxlebisas is imperatorTan aRar aris. savaraudoT amis mizezi gaxda misi coli, axalgazrda lamazi qali.colis SerTvis Semdeg rustami agar Cans bonapartis amalaSi.
rustami gardaicvala 1845 wels samSoblodan Zalian Sors, safrangeTis patara qalaq durdanSi.
daud – faSa
erT-EerTi gamorCeuli da gamoCenili mamluqi warmoSobiT qarTveli,gvarad manveliSvili iyo. is tyveTa movaWreebma daaxloebiT 5-6 wlis asakSi gaitaces da osmaleTSi gayides. patara daviTs ramdenjerme gamoecvala patroni.bolos is erayis gamgebel suleiman-faSa quCuks miarTves, romelic aseve qarTveli iyo.suleimanma daviTi daudad monaTla da mamluqTa saswavlebelSi  miabara.
daudi Zalian niWieri moswavle gamodga. Seiswavla axlo aRmosavleTis kvela ena,RvTismetyveleba da samxedro saqme.
27wlis asakSi suleimanma mas safaSo xazina Caabara da Tavisi asuli SerTo colad.
daudi ramdenime vilaeTis (olqis ) mmarTvelad daniSnes.am dros baRdadSi didi areuloba daiwyo da daudi iZulebuli gaxda omSi Cabmuliyo. 1818 wels Seutia qurTistans, ritac iranis gaRizianeba gamoiwvia. daudi sastikad gausworda Siit mosaxleobas.
dauds mosvenebas ar aZlevda ingliselTa gaZliereba baRdadSi.man ganucxada ingliselebs,rom amieridan maT aRar eqnebodaT privilegiebi da isini unda damorCilebodnen baRdadis kanonebs da gadaexadaT gadasaxadebi
daudma warmatebiT CaaxSo ajanyeba eraySi.
daudis samxesro warmatebebis dasayrdeni qarTvel mamuqTa gvardia iyo. es gvardia gamoirCeoda  vajkacobiTa da brZolis xelovnebiT.
dud-faSa didi reformebi gaatara qveyanaSi. moiwvia evropeli saxedro specialistebi,rom axleburad gaewvrTna jari.SeiZina gemebi da Seqmna sakuTari floti. ganaviTara soflis meurneoba,safeiqro meurneoba,gansakuTrebiT qsovilis warmoeba. evropel vaWrebs daado didi gadasaxadebi,riTac sakmaod Seavso xazina.1828-1829 ww. daudis brZanebiT baRdadSi gmartes pirveli stamba, 1830-31 ww.ki aamuSaves pirveli fabrika-wusqvili.\
daud-faSa ise gaZlierda, rom SeeZlo damoukidebeli erayuli saxelmwifo Seeqmna da rodesac osmaleTis sulTani faSas gadasaxadis gadaxdas mosTxovs, is uars SeuTvlis da erays gamoacxadebs osmaleTisagan Tavisufal samefod.
osmalTa ganrisxebuli sulTani damsjel jars agzavnis.am dros eraySi Savma Wirma ifeTqa,amas saSineli wyaldidoba daerTo. cixisTavebma uRalates dauds da mtris mxareze gadavidnen. osmalebma baRadi aiRes.
daudi daakaves da col-SvilTan erTad TurqeTis qalaq bursaSi, sapatio gadasaxlebaSi gagzavnes. amboben, rom is Tavisma didma vaJkacobam gadaarCinao.
ori wlis Semdeg sultanma gamoiwvia igi bursadan da erT-erT sardlad daniSna. Semdeg osmaleTis imperiis saxelmwifo sabWos Tavmjdomared daniSna. amis Semdegac mniSvnelovani postebi ekava. dauds q. medinaSi auSenebia ulamazesi baRi,romelsac ,,daudie“ uwodes.
mTeli sicocxlis manZilze daudi Tvals adevnebda samSobloSi datrialebul movlenebs. masTan xSirad stumrobdnen Zmebi zubalaSvilebi, romelTaganac  igebda mSoblebisa da dedmamisSvilebis ambavs. baRdadis faSad gaxdomis Semdeg ki, man Zmebi TavisTan miiwvia.
daudi gardaicvala 1851wels da daasaflaves q.medinaSi.

მუშტაიდის ბაღი (ლანა მარშანია)


   Tbilisis erT-erTi uZvelesi baRi me-19 saukuneSi daarsda. es iyo muStaidis parki. es baRi atarebs iranis azerbaijanSi Siitebis religiuri lideris mujTahidis saxels.
 FfeTax-aRa seid Tavziri didgvarovani ojaxidan iyo. hqonda kargi ganaTleba da iyo kargi mosaubre. muSTaidi ruseTis mTavrobam gadaibira, ris gamoc mas iranis Sahma samSobloSi Casvla aukrZala.
  muStaidi TbilisSi dasaxlda. xelisuflebam mas neba darTo gaexsna sasuliero saswavlebeli da gamouyo miwis nakveTi ntkvris marcxena mxareze. aq man SesaniSnavi baRi gaaSena da sarwyavi arxic gaiyvana.
 muStaids colad hyavda qarTveli qali – nino, romelic stambulis tyveTa bazarze uyidia. swored ninos TxovniT airCia man sacxovreblad Tbilisi, magram qalaqSi Camosul ninos mSoblebi cocxali aRar daxvda, dardisgan avad gaxda da 6 TveSi gardaicvala. muStaidma igi saxlis win dakrZala da saflavze bevri wiTeli vardi dargo, aseve rgavda yvavilebs, buCqebs, xe-mcenareebs da ase dauwyia baRis mSenebloba.
 1845 wels muSTaidi Seiwyales da TavrizSi dabrunda. baRma ramdenjerme Seicvala patroni da bolos saseirno baRad iqca. aq mravali gasarTobi da TavSesaqcevi adgili iyo. swored am baRis saxafxulo scenaze naxa  firosmanma margarita. aqedan auSves amier-kavkasiaSi pirveli sahaero burTi 1882 wels.
 saqarTveloze uzomod Seyvarebuli germaneli mwerali artur laisti didi siyvaruliT aRwers muSTaidis baRs. muSTaidis baRSi unikaluri jiSis mcenareebia: foTlovani gledi Cia, Tela. aqve aris sanerge. baRis teritoriazea saabreSumo sadguri baRSi aris msoflioSi pirveli sabavSvo sadguri rkinigza, aseve aris plaretariumi. bars dResac SerCenili aqvs misi damaarseblis muSTaidis saxeli.